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CIS 252 - Database Security

A guide for CIS 252 students working on database security papers. How to use Google Scholar and Academic Search Complete to research database security.

ACM In-text & Reference Examples


  • Reference list is not in alphabetical order—entries are listed in order of appearance in your paper.  (So your first citation is [1] and appears first on the list at the end of your paper.)
  • If you quote or paraphrase the same source again, use the same number.  Your source might be cited several times in-text, but only one bibliographic entry per source.
  • Conference proceedings look like articles but they are cited a little differently—see examples below.
  • Do not make a separate page for your Reference list.  After the last line of the body of your paper, type the word “REFERENCES” bold & caps.
  • Reference list is single-spaced and in numerical order with each source appearing one time.


Here are some examples of in-text citation in body of paper and Reference list.                                                                                            

           We note that a deterministic near-linear time min-cut algorithm is known for planar graphs [4].  We are not aware of anyone else that

has observed that a large minimum degree in a simple graph implies few minimum cuts, though it does appear that this fact could also

be derived from  the cactus representation [5].  For more detailed history for the global minimum cut problem, we refer the reader to

the book by Schrijver [29].

          Our presentation is necessarily at a high level, omitting many details, but the interested reader can find the complete

specification online [91, 103] if they would like to read more about this issue.

          The point is that to find a minimum cut, they just have to guess a vertex t on the side that s does not belong to. The s-t cuts

are understood via Menger’s classic theorem [25].  Kohler et al. [54] designed DCCP, a datagram congestion control protocol without

reliability. Within this process, two partial formalizations were done, one using finite state machines, and one using colored Petri

nets by Vanit-Anunchai et al. [105].


    [4]   P. Chalermsook, J. Fakcharoenphol, and D. Nanongkai. 2004. A deterministic near-linear time algorithm for finding
           minimum cuts in planar graphs. In Proceedings of the 15th SODA. 828–829.
    [5]   Efim A. Dinitz, A. V. Karzanov, and Micael V. Lomonosov. 1976. A structure of the system of all minimum cuts of a
           graph. In Studies in Discrete Optimization, A.A. Fridman (Ed.). 290–306.
  [25]   Karl Menger. 1927. Zur allgemeinen Kurventheorie. Fund. Math. 10 (1927), 96–115.
  [29]   A. Schrijver. 2003. Combinatorial Optimization: Polyhedra and Efficiency. Springer, NY.
  [54]   Eddie Kohler, Mark Handley, and Sally Floyd. 2006. Designing DCCP: Congestion control without reliability. In
           Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer
           Communications (SIGCOMM’06). ACM, New York, 27–38. DOI:
  [91]   Tom Ridge, Michael Norrish, and Peter Sewell. 2009. TCP, UDP, and Sockets: Volume 3: The Service-Level
           Specification.Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-742. Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge. 305pp.Retrieved
[103]   The Netsem Project. [n.d.]. Web page. Retrieved from
[105]   Somsak Vanit-Anunchai, Jonathan Billington, and Tul Kongprakaiwoot. 2005. Discovering chatter and incompleteness
           in the datagram congestion control protocol. In Proceedings of the 25th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference on Formal
           Techniques for Networked and Distributed Systems (FORTE’05). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 143–158.